20 febbraio 2011 § Lascia un commento
FROM CHAOS TO EXCELLENCE Success has a fleeting life and the chaos is on the corner, ready to take over from what is often called a victory. Accelerating change and complexity pose a challenge for organizations pursuing excellence as a principle of development. ACCELERATION OF CHANGE AND COMPLEXITY ‘ Tom Peters is a reference to the works written by R. Waterman In Search of Excellence, which was followed by a second volume entitled “The passion for excellence. These works illustrate a number of key ideas on the direction, essentially based on common sense, reinforced by a series of very specific examples, referring to companies that have been successful. A subsequent search after three years, which occurred more than a third of them had failed. This discovery enabled him to understand that excellence alone is not enough. It ‘requires that companies, managers and staff are able to implement the characteristics of flexibility, of adaptability, opportunism and creativity to enable them to ride the chaos. The word chaos may seem excessive, but was chosen deliberately for its etymological meaning of open, gaping. The word recalls the idea of the primordial state before the biblical creation of the world, and focuses on two trends that many observers seem to agree: a) the acceleration of change and b) the complexity. • First, the acceleration of change. This chan-ges is manifested both within the States, in society, family, organizations, and international levels. We have spoken enough of economic globalization, and is now an irreversible phenomenon. We have gone from a bipolar world to at least a four-pole, where Japan is the third largest and fourth united Europe. Glimpse, however, other centers of influence with which we must cooperate, Korea, India, China and perhaps tomorrow, Brazil. • The second trend concerns the complexity. The world is neither easier nor more difficult than it was a century ago. And the ‘new awareness of this complexity and the need to cope in a world where everything is related to everything. Look for simple solutions to every problem is an illusion now desirable. Understand and live the spirit of the system is an absolute necessity for survival. The company today can be considered as a permanent place of troubleshooting multi-disciplinary (marketing, finance, technology, human, social …). Here is a set of attitudes that allow the case to face and benefit from: • agreeing to step out of their ivory tower; • be prepared to adapt to change; • be flexible, have access to multiple languages; • know how to take risks; • to trust their own ideas and those of others; • be able to translate the negative experiences into opportunities; • make the right to make mistakes; • accept the game of transparency and open doors; • make the team. EXCELLENCE: persistently exceeding Excellence is a quality that has become a principle of management. It ‘necessary to overcome the barriers of expertise and the opening of borders, since by definition of excellence is relative, you can never achieve. What may seem excellent today, in a given context, it is much less in a situation closely and will in the near future or far away. His strength and his weakness is not simply the need for continuous improvement “Today better than yesterday and tomorrow better than today.” Excellence imposed from above is seen as a critique of the mediocrity and a willingness to blame for a greater commitment of employees. The rediscovery of excellence by each and lived at all levels becomes instead a means to instill in each an entrepreneurial spirit, to turn every employee into an entrepreneur. New is what we do not know, that was not there before, that has changed. He expressed this concept well Heraclitus Do not you ever bathe twice in the same river water, there is one thing that does not change, the change because everything is constantly changing, ourselves, at two different times, we are no longer the same person. The same, at two different times, is no longer the same. THE CONCEPT OF THE NEW The new one is produced continuously by what surrounds us and ourselves. In other words, has become a new theme to fashion from the moment the company and the situation of competition between contractors have stimulated the idea of the market with original ideas and, thanks to new, market needs. What is new for the individual? It is something different. Gordon and Prince, the inventors of Synectics say that our natural attitude toward the news is to look as if we were family, and reconnect to things we already know. Therefore suggest to look at things that are familiar to us as if we were entirely new. What we perceive as new and so what has one or more degrees of difference in relation to something we already know. We can react to the news with indifference, acceptance or rejection. We live it deliberately because we like it, endure it because there’s tax environment, or simply because you are forced by management in which we work. NEW ‘AND RESISTANCE TO CHANGE Let us now discuss the concept of resistance to change, which is a real obstacle they encounter every manager or manager. Another lifestyle change is to create, invent, and it is confronted with the existing creative attitude. By definition, creativity is very focused on innovation. His senses are trained to perceive everything, so to better capture the change and difference. The news that we invent, we want to share. This is the function of the innovators, whether they are generalists (entrepreneurs, CEOs, executives, marketing, human resources rigenti-etc.) For which the management of change is one of the tasks, or specialists, for whom ‘ Innovation is the main if not the only mission. In all cases these people will have to stimulate, because innovation can not be imposed. A change is imposed for failure, if not immediately, certainly in the end. In fact, it will produce in their mechanisms of self-sabotage which will ensure that its application is disappointing. TO HELP PROMOTE CHANGE It may stimulate in different ways. For example, make comparisons, but simply the presentation of certain operating results in comparison with what had been done in the past and what we hoped to do. It may simply be a disastrous event. In any case, the innovator will have to be careful that this stimulation is not experienced in the negative, will have to ensure that the positive effects greatly outweigh the negative ones, because if you got the attitude is that of fatalism or hopelessness, has been a failure . It is here to provoke a feeling of revolt against the event and a desire to confront it, to overcome it. Another way of stimulating and encouraging. The encouragement to be revealed by both the Executive Board, as an aid in terms of real and concrete. Yet another way for you to persuade. A communication can enhance well-studied for its novelty, may awaken the curiosity, desires, and getting people to accept change. A creative approach combined with creativity techniques in everyday life are essential for technical innovation. These measures will stimulate and support innovation and rectum among the core values of the organization. One could argue that the CEOs are talking about years of innovation, which is very rare to find a business strategy in which there is no innovation as a key to the success of present and future. These forms of management are completely inadequate. A password becomes a value when it is proven that people who have thrown you believe, that is when their behavior conform to the words. In other words, innovation becomes a key value of the organization when the innovators are recognized and rewarded. From the moment not only permits them to take risks, make mistakes, get out of the beaten track, but also presents them as models to others and not as the marginal utility of which to withstand the forces’ eccentricity. So the innovation itself becomes one of the normal functions. Opening to the world through creativity ‘ The president of a company said in a recent interview, “Who does not have European ambitions, has no ambitions at all.” This sentence seems overly restrictive, because Europe is not a part of the world, open to the rest of the world. The international dimension is part of our daily lives and it would be hard to find a house in Italy where there are no products from three, four or more different countries. The irruption of the world in daily life has not yet been fully integrated in the life of yet this is a necessity, and not just those involved in medium and long term strategies. Setting off in unison with the cultures of the universe is a task made possible by the creativity. In fact, being creative is able to communicate with each other, the other starting and continuing with our colleague, our partner. Being creative is being able to tune in with others and subsequent passages, with the stranger. Getting to this mental flexibility, so it does not require more linear and sequential, but multiple, synchronous, is the challenge that we must win and we face a growing pleasure from the moment they accept a greater share of use of resources of our brain. With the development of acuity of perception, with the overcoming of prejudices that reinforce the ethnocentrism of each of the old European nations, compared with a priori to all that is new and different, a man is born again that, while reaffirming its national or regional culture, you know not only accept and respect the culture of others, but also find in it an endless source of enrichment. In addition, the ability to relate to the cultures of past and present to create a remedy for those of the future is virtually indispensable to reduce the stress of modern man. A NEW STYLE OF MANAGEMENT The introduction of creativity in organizations is closely related to a new style of leadership. The many books published recently on this issue have in common is what is called the inverted pyramid. In other words, the classical hierarchical scheme that provides up to the Summit of the man credited with the possession of knowledge, giving orders, relayed by the gears at the base of the hierarchy that must implement it passed or are being rapidly overcome even in more traditional organizations. In the new organization is now implemented the matrix management, directional pattern in which an increasing number of people is connected to two poles of influence, a hierarchical, the other functional. Tomorrow we will go towards a multi-management. In addition to connecting the two poles mentioned above, all the paintings belong to a group-project of more or less long, multi-disciplinary project teams, which will be entrusted with a mission to accomplish, with the technical resources, intellectual and time. ACCESSION TO PARTICIPATE The leaders are not prepared for this style of command. They are aware of the fact that the classical way of giving orders is obsolete, but have not yet learned to give instructions so that, on the one hand, attitudes are understood perfectly, and, secondly, that meet most of membership participation by persons who receive them. The manager today must be a real entertainer, he must give encouragement and guidance to boost intelligence, creativity and energy of employees because they use their resources and focalizzino in the right direction. Typical of this, the creative work. The new rules of the game, the manager gives the basic references and outlines the criteria for success. Employees bring their claims against their intuition, they use their resources, expertise and imagination, individually and in groups to propose and then implement new ideas relevant and effective. BECOME A Creative Animation The need for the manager, to become a creative soul, is meeting a growing need of the staff not to be reduced to the simple role of performer. This means that employees must be able to give, as often as possible, a contribution to defining the tasks and processes that is being offered. To avoid such frustration that the rebellion discovery or larvae, it is important that the manager should draw up a rule of the game and send the staff of the mental tools that allow them to practice it, what you see already in some organizations achieve peak. So, how to help the manager or the person to play this role? CREATIVITY ‘, A NEW METHOD FOR SPEECH Those responsible will have to learn a grid of rea-ture of human behavior, making them aware of the fact that pure rationality leads to irrationality. The human being is not only the left hemisphere of the brain is totally dedicated to the collection of objective facts and their interpretations of deductive, but also of the right sensitivity, emotions. In addition, the individual, each individual has values as well. The result is the same process of thought, the result of an interaction between the various parts of the ego. The executive and managers have an incentive to learn, to understand its operation and that of others. They also need to discover the complexity and richness of communication, to find the sources of human energy and the means do not block or squandered, and the techniques and attitudes that can unlock and develop. Should also become a consistent pattern. In conclusion, the key idea for a new style of soul-tion goes through the importance attached by those who have responsibility for directing the establishment of conditions to facilitate the use of creativity for all and forever. This is the price that the organizations of the 2000s have to pay to become more innovative. Firstly, advise the executive and the leaders to commit their personal responsibility, knowing that an innovative behavior does not occur spontaneously and that he will need to encourage by word and deed the creative behavior of subordinates. You have to recognize individual differences and discern the potential of each to make them understand the tasks and objectives to be achieved. This will ensure that promotes individual responsibility and maturity of each. If people have the impression that we have or have little control over their environment, develop behavior passive, conformist and immature. Managers must ensure that innovative ideas are trans-stopped at the highest level possible and must not ignore the feedback., With reasonably challenging goals, making the tasks that foster a sense of personal and professional growth of people with whom they work. The notion of creation is very important. Managers will also need to establish a healthy attitude to failure in the face, and viewing it as an opportunity to learn. WORK AND TRAINING The dilemma today is to grow up culturally or perish. This is also true for organizations. We are emerging from a myth that has already cost us dearly, that training and education is something that relates to childhood and adolescence and the adult in the true sense of the word, it means arriving at the end of growth. Large schools and diplomas have done nothing but reinforce this myth and today it is not unusual to see managers or executives who believe that the register for a training seminar corresponds to confess their imperfection. The concept of lifelong learning was originally developed for others. Its exponential growth is a good thing, not only for the training institutions. But at the same time, appear the limits: the amount of new knowledge must be acquired to combat what has been called the explosion of ignorance, the need to learn the techniques of direction, of update and supplement, causes some futurists have already provided the framework of the date on which each will spend more time to build than to produce. What is manifestly unacceptable, but would be ineffective. Training, as conceived and practiced today, he enrolled in a sequential pattern of Taylorist: Job formed or me. The seminar is presented here as a teacher in the brackets we will charge before returning to productive tasks. Surely this parenthesis is extremely useful and will remain indispensable for de-term effects of rapid change and intense at the same time we see the opportunity and the need not to create a clear divide between the moment when you learn what and where acts. In fact, in a normal working week, there are many opportunities to learn. As we take some of them and let slip the other: hence the new concept of lifelong learning. The mere maintenance of our body in good working order is a consequence of constant learning. Recent neurophysiological studies have shown that the equilibrium does not exist. Either we develop and grow, or we shrink and there crumpled, in a nutshell age. REINVENTING THE WORK THROUGH CREATIVITY ‘AND PLEASURE Recworking The term was invented during an international congress of sociology of work, from work and recreation. Attendees came to the unanimous conclusion that, tomorrow, the bulk of the work will be done by machines and robots, the human part of the work itself can not be taken if not lead to an intrinsic content of play, fun and pleasure. It has not yet found a translation that returns a good idea of the term reckworking: lavogodere is an acceptable equivalent, but not entirely satisfactory. One can also imagine the word work, or recreational giocavare. One could distinguish three periods in the man-work. • The first time was that of duty, work was an obligation not only to survive but also moral, which gave to its author, even a certain respectability and sanctity; • The second period saw the prevailing regime of the contract: the individual talent and exchanging expertise in change of status and remuneration. The old values of identification with the company, overtime and practices to take home at the weekend, looked like things of the past; • The third period corresponds to the economic crisis and the irresistible rise of Japan, which led to a rediscovery of the values, as opposed to a strong need to achieve through work. It is not, in fact, just a hedonistic pleasure of consumption, but a legitimate pleasure from its alignment with organizational values. HUMANISM IN THE COMPANY In a rapidly changing world blowing up valid points of reference, there is a need to rediscover those values which are, as ever, a certainty in life everyday. The revaluation of the personal and intimate is the most useful thing to do and that, as regards the corporate world, identifies the so-called Humanism business? The assets of a company is, of course, made up primarily of those people who decide to commit themselves to share and make their business vision and daring. Job descriptions, job description and so often lead company employees to feel unmotivated and considered. Humanism company pushes the definition of new systems able to give weight and value not only to its economic, but also other variables such as work environment, the business climate, staff development and quality of life. Employees need to feel the company made, challenges and recognition of their contribution. You are no longer looking for honest wages for honest days of work, but rather aims to opportunities that allow visitors to enjoy a great work.
11 febbraio 2011 § Lascia un commento
Each company in its operations continuously and durable weaves a “spider web” indivisible and interdependent between things that meet and the things that do not touch. We can assimilate figured the company to a village consisting of a collection of houses around the tower with the church and town hall, the streets and fields, but also a more radical measure, such as the values, traditions and customs that over time have matured in the components of the village and the firm in fact. The relationship between “the players in the business” in the management of work (for goods and affections) evolve on the basis of real values defined by the Leader by example, the definition of and respect the mission and vision of the company include references to key the conduct of all activities. If we accept the definition of “image” as the appearance of the objects perceived through the sense of “subjective” vision and “brand” a specific sign or symbol – the original that distinguishes a product or service made by the company to distinguish it from other similar We understand that the combination of both defines the “identity” of the perceived. The image that identifies the brand is built through actions, attitudes and behaviors in the supply chain “business – the market” that “law-sense” the specific identity, the image is in fact the “manifesto” in which the firm forward it to market its “character” through the efforts of respect for the values part of its mission. E ‘of the actors must have the will and the possibility to check periodically (with honest awareness) that the conduct and actions are consistent with the objectives outlined in the case should apply any necessary corrective measures for the maintenance of the route. How do you test? Just by looking at it fairly, and honestly the behavior and actions towards the market and the company itself to wondering if what is happening meets market expectations – the customer (trying to put ourselves in the same customer – market) A few months ago, visiting a major Italian manufacturer of sports cars, we wondered why we were in the field machining of the engine components of the cars on display were built by the same manufacturer, the demand for our business managers they said that the people who work in this area do not have the opportunity to see the finished product out of the assembly line and it is therefore necessary that these people are aware that the what is produced is an important component of the product in fact reinforcing the sense of belonging to the company. The mark usually consists of an icon or graphic image with specific colors, must recur across the board – perceptual and repetitive through the consistent use of colors, graphics (style – characters – fonts etc..) Within which all ‘outside the company continually identifying and attracting a positive corporate image; Repeated use of corporate colors, and graphics of the brand is the most immediate could be used to renew a sense of belonging to the company recognizing an active, positive and distinguishing themselves in global business. Especially in trade shows, in illustrative documentation, administrative documents (letterhead – business cards etc..) Is very important to reproduce colors and brands in order to confirm the specific and distinctive company image To better manage the use of the graphic image is useful to gather all the information (RAL / Pantone color – Font of characters composing the mark and the words – in combination ‘use of color-scale size, etc..) In a “graphic manual “that must be continually consulted and updated with the inclusion of studies – pictures and all that concerns the evolution of the corporate image.
4 febbraio 2011 § Lascia un commento
In our working days we do not often realize how that can be wasted every day, regularly go to create, in some studies claim that companies that can be called “traditional” non-value activities in production area accounts for 60% of the assets , we are talking basically of activities that can be processed quickly, 35% need more time to improve and then we can see that only 5% of the assets generate value.
If we enter into the business office, we find that only 1% generates values while 49% refers to activities that do not generate value, but that can be implemented quickly, while the other 50% refers to activities DO NOT VALUE ADDED, but can be eliminated in the longer term.
Based on the foregoing, we are going to develop a set of points that will help us to address the war on waste in a winning, highlighting everything that does not create value, turning it into VALUE
1. Base your management decisions for the long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term financial goals
The most common goal is always to make big money in the shortest possible time, companies that are created to generate money, thus creating the opportunity to invest and grow, while maintaining or even better, increasing its position
First, each society must understand the history and purpose, goals that are set from time to time, but the important thing for any company is to generate value for our customers, society and the economy itself , which is why all our efforts must be focused to achieve those values.
2. Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface
Each worker process must be redesigned to eliminate waste (muda) through the process of continuous improvement – Kaizen.
Only through a proper redesign of Kaizen and processes we can develop high added value by eliminating all those activities that produce value and inactive.
We must therefore focus on creating a connection of the following streams:
Flow of supplies
A rapid and simple connection allows us to have so clear a stream and seen by all, both from internal personnel from outside personnel.
Ideally, all actors in our company should be able to understand a simple glance, where it moves the material to its destination, the activities of persons and, more importantly their goals.
If we want to achieve this we must begin with the elimination of the 7 leading waste, or as they are called in Japan, MUDA, listed below:
a. Producing more than necessary from the subsequent process,
a. Eliminate downtime of machines and operators
a. Continue to move the material without assigning a clear destination
a. Perform unnecessary work, or unsolicited; rework due to errors or omissions
5. Excess Inventory
a. Hold the stock with very high values, and have a low number of rotation in relation to cost of sales
6. Unnecessary movements
a. Click to play by the staff, production and administrative movements and generate unnecessary waste of time and increased fatigue
a. Create a defective product
Each of MUDA above can have a decisive bearing on the final result of a company, depending on the type of activity examined each part must be assigned a value that will indicate the priorities for action.
IMPROVEMENT IS ONLY THROUGH A REDUCTION OF WASTE
3. PULL use the system to reduce overproduction
Through the PULL system, you can avoid unnecessary overproduction minimizing the WIP (work processes) and the warehouse inventory replenishment system with a common
In a strict management pull, input products in production is not made in anticipation of orders, production is regulated by the downstream production process. In a system of pull the materials are pulled into the factory by the orders in the portfolio, and this is possible because these orders cover the crossing time of production and supply. In contrast, in a push system is necessary to anticipate the entry of materials at the factory and work orders because the crossing time is longer than the horizon of the backlog. Pull systems “pure” types are very rare in the manufacturing and production prevail in situations where the order book is supplemented by sales forecasts, at least at the start (push-pull).
A pull system is governed entirely by orders and therefore does not seem to require forecasts. This is actually true only for the products, however, have to plan facilities and manpower resources, that is, defining the capacity of a process. Also they must be procured with sufficient time to make them available at the time of use.
the objective is to daily demand, order today delivered tomorrow.
4. Balancing the workload
Heijunka (平 准 化) is the Japanese term for the level of production. It ‘s a technique to prevent the waste of walls and is of vital importance in lean companies. The general idea is to produce goods in the processes upstream at a steady pace, allowing the same rate constant and predictable even at the downstream operations. By keeping a small inventory of finished product at the end of the production process, the application can be leveled for the entire production and also to the suppliers, thus making more efficient use of resources across the value stream while meeting customer requirements
Ideally, the production can be leveled easily if demand is constant, but in the real world this question is variable, and two approaches are adopted to deal with: the level of production through flexible production and level of demand.
Level of production
Level of production may be due to the volume leveling for leveling or type of product or product mix.
Suppose we have a demand of between 80 and 120 pieces. It might seem sensible
accurately produce on demand. This approach, however, says its product according to the average of long-term demand and to keep an inventory proportional to the variability in demand, stability of the production process and the frequency of deliveries. In our example, if the process is 100% reliable and we have one delivery per week, then the production would be 100 pieces with a minimum standard of 20 parts inventory at the beginning of the week and 120 pieces at the time of delivery. The advantage of carrying this inventory is that manages to level the entire production output and reduce WIP inventories.
By product type (mix):
Most productions have a mix of products and therefore have to determine the sequence of production. The lean approach is to reduce the setup time of production (SMED method) so that they can be produced (and are not prohibitive in terms of cost) to smaller and smaller batches of each product, almost nullifying the significance of productive time and costs lost. This means that demand for parts can be leveled for the upstream sub-processes and thus the total lead time and inventories are reduced along the value stream. To simplify the leveling of products with varying levels of demand is often used so-called Heijunka box (box Heijunka) board for a visual check, which you can see in the introductory part. In a typical box Heijunka each horizontal row represents a product, while each vertical column represents the same
intervals of time in which to withdraw the card kanban. The kanban card in the compartments
represents a pitch of production for a particular product type (pitch is the takt time
multiplied by the amount of product that is put into a package). Used as
illustration, the box Heijunka persistently demand in short increments of time (rather than release the program to shift, day or week …) and level the demand for the product mix (eg, ensuring that the products D and E are produced with a constant rate and inlotti children).
With regard to the level of production by product type, we assume that the public offer 4 models of product A, B, C and D which is the weekly requirement of 50 for A, 30 B, 20 for C and D. A mass producer (Traditional), looking for economies of scale and want to minimize the effect of setup times between products, you probably would have produced weekly with the sequence 10A-10A-10A-10A-10A-10B-10B-10B -10C-10C-10D-10D.
A lean manufacturer, in addition to the benefits described above the effect of sending large batches and
infrequent orders to upstream suppliers, would undertake to produce the repeated sequence 10A-10A-10B-10C-10D-10A-10A-10B-10C-10D-10A-10B, improving your system by reducing the time setup. And this sequence would be periodically adjusted according to changes in orders (in question) of the customer.
Level of demand
Level of demand is the deliberate influence of the application or processes that define the purpose of obtaining a more predictable pattern of customer demand. Part of this influence comes through the manipulation of the product, partly by influencing the process of ordering and revealing part of the variability induced by the amplification of demand or purchase patterns. It does not include activities designed to influence to get rid of existing stocks. Usually the level of demand is caused by artifacts in the process of selling and order and not from an analysis of the past. This means that the timing of the entire supply chain must be reduced:
where the actual construction time-delivery may have the same order of magnitude of the expectations of the customer, then the planning effort could be successful. In this case a reliable production provides low levels of stocks (or no stock) and it will not interfere with customer satisfaction. Also disappearing are the incentives to sell what was produced and stored …
Otherwise, if the construction-delivery is longer than the time that the customer is ready to
wait, you run the risk of wrong predictions and end up with unacceptable levels of stocks …
If the request follows a predictable pattern (flat or even seasonal), you can arrange to have shipments that follow this same or similar pattern, optimizing inventory and manufacturing processes.
Stability is one of the pillars of the system. Without stability and without defined and standardized procedures may not be able to have a working system. And Heijunka is the tool to use to reach it. So use it with head and aim to reach a clear idea.
5. Building a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get the right quality immediately
Quality takes precedence (Jidoka). Any employee of a company called LEAN (Lean) has the authority to stop the process to signal a quality issue.
The term Toyota Jido “is applied to a machine with a built-in device for making judgments, whereas the normal Japanese term” Jido (automation) is simply applied to a machine that moves on its own. Jidoka refers to “automation with a human touch,” as opposed to a machine that simply moves under the control and supervision of an operator.
Since the machine stops when a problem arose, no harm, no defective product was produced. This means that a single operator could be put in charge of several machines, leading to a huge improvement in productivity.
The key issue is getting quality required by our customers with the first production without where to rework
– Use modern methods of quality assurance
– Building the ability to detect the problems (and stop the process)
– The “Jidoka” is a system of visual identification by machines when not produced the required quality
Zero Quality Control – Quality must be in the product and process
Everyone is responsible to monitor the critical aspects of quality before a trial has begun;
Everyone is responsible to check their work after a task or operation has been completed, and if the first two inspections do not ensure a sufficiently high level of quality or safety, we use the source control.
6. Activities and standardized processes are the basis for continuous improvement and employee empowerment
The more I find myself visiting companies and more I realize how profoundly lacking most of them are in the field of standards and documented procedures, not to mention the labor standard. As one of the cornerstones of the Toyota Production System, labor standards (including standardized work) is very different from the standard or standards of work. Standard work is a very demanding. It is typically represented on a spreadsheet that shows the standard layout, material flow, people and inventory control points and the quality and safety, and the form of standard combinations containing the times and activities for a person to complete a cycle of work at hand, on foot, and waiting times.
The definition of standard work is “the most effective mix of human, material and equipment. Work is the standard method, and then you have the four M to production (labor, materials, machines, methods). The standard of work is “the most effective” until the standard is improved. This is done through the continuous improvement process kaizen.
There are three elements of labor standards for a process in phases. They are: 1) takt time, 2) sequence of work and 3) standard work in progress. For a process that repeats itself or is too variable may not be possible to establish standards of work under these conditions (takt time is not significant, sequence of work varies, Standard WIP varies). In this case, it is necessary to eliminate the variability and standardize the process and create a flow-rate, or apply other options, it always through Kaizen.
Ultimately, the work you do is the same, and when we understand this Zen Deep Lean everything else you do will be much easier.
The two requirements for working in a true Lean Enterprise are: 1) follow the work standards, and 2) find a better way. There must be something more than that and you are right, for most of us that the lack of standard work is not the point of departure. First we must establish standards, then we need to train people to these standards and then we need to review and verify that these standards are met.
employee empowerment = radical decentralization
7. Use visual control so that problems can not be hidden
No problem is hidden, that’s the reason why you must create a standard of measurement in order to keep the situation under control
To better achieve the goal, it will be important to use the 5S Program – steps that are used to make all work spaces efficient and productive, help people to work in a safe environment, reduce the time needed to search for tools and improve the working environment.
Eliminate unnecessary items
Put in order: a place for everything everything in its place
Clean: Keep the area clean
Standardize: Create rules and standard operating procedures
Support: maintain the system and continue to improve
Then applying a management system Visual’re going to promote the development of a business safer, more efficient and less expensive processes. The objective of using visual management is to create “status at a glance.” This means that an operating environment in which the conditions of normal vs abnormal operation can be detected easily and quickly.
Visual management tools are used to:
• Provide status at a glance, allowing quick and easy detection of abnormal operating conditions
• Provides visual tools for helping employees to complete tasks more quickly and in a more standardized approach
Visual Management creates a standardized environment of work, giving instructions, directions, reminders, etc., on how the work should be done. There are endless possibilities for the application of visual management.
The key is to find creative ways to apply visual management to reduce waste of assets, connections and flows
8. Use technologies are tested and reliable, to serve your people and your processes
The technology is driven by production, is not driven by production, it is necessary that the technology being used to support people (not to replace them)
Before investing in new technologies will be important to ask: “What is my purpose?”
Lean the basic philosophy that says you have to use machines ‘old’ and slow but able to comply with the “takt” production, and dedicated to the production process rather than large complex machines that enslave more lines.
In reality, the factors that define the kind of type to be applied are different, we can attach to the lean philosophy, and the same kaizen teaches is always proceed in small steps, 50% better now that 90% tomorrow.
Always remember to measure the present values, check the risultai that you can get the new investment, the expected workload at first, and then the payback time
9. Grow leaders who understand and live the philosophy, and teach others
Without constant attention, the principles fade. The principles should be grounded, to have to change the way you think. Employees must be educated and trained: they must maintain a network of learning.
“Live the philosophy and teach it to others”
In a Lean approach is important for leaders to grow from within, the Leader does not just do business and have people skills, but should be a role model one who understands the work in great detail and remember to always be a good teacher
A leader LEAN guide:
– Setting an example
– Entering into the complicated details
– Asking questions
– Teaching and training
– Building systems and processes robust and sensitive sharing responsibility
10. Develop exceptional people and team to follow the philosophy of
In order to develop a process, a key element is to create a strong and stable culture in which values and beliefs are widely shared by everyone from top management last arrived in the company.
At the same time a strong shared culture allows us to build team working in collaboration across company, working towards shared objectives through projects constructed in full cooperation.
This collaboration brings us to a miglioramentodella quality and productivity, accelerating the process of problem solving and organizational learning.
11. Respect your network of partners and suppliers, through healthy competition and helping to improve
Toyota treats suppliers much like their employees, forcing them to do better and find better solutions. Toyota provides cross-functional teams to suppliers so that together they can discover and resolve issues with the goal of becoming even more performance
In fact suppliers are business partners participating in the challenge of helping to grow and develop.
It is thus to address the concept of comakership, is that a strategy for suppliers. First it comes to selecting and thinning in order to reduce their number, through carefully selected criteria.
In a second step it tries to turn suppliers into partners with the purchasing strategies which work in co-design, reducing costs since the study of the product
If the customer tries to create value for the supplier and the supplier seeks to create value for customers is an open collaboration, long-term contracts are signed to strengthen relations. The common objectives are quality, service, innovation, aimed at sharing the cost and competitive advantage.
Working together can cover the product, service, process, in order to achieve an improvement due to synergies of the link. This initiative can be born a second initiative, the enterprise network. The organizational changes may improve mutual and reciprocal: the operational areas, reports logistics, quality and reliability, the development of new products, support systems (planning), contractual relations, marketing, purchasing, evaluation of suppliers.
12. Go see for yourself to fully understand the situational (genchi gembutsu)
From a Toyota managers are expected to “go-and-see” operations in its area. Without experiencing the situation firsthand, managers will have an understanding of how we can improve. Moreover, the managers use the following management principles:
– Always keep in mind the ultimate goal.
– Clearly assign tasks to yourself and others.
– Think and talk at the level of verification, the data are the basis for improvement.
– Taking full advantage of the wisdom and experience of all, to meet and discuss the collected
– Share information with others in a timely fashion.
– Implement relations, inform and consult in a timely manner all the Team
– Analyze and understand the weaknesses in your skills in a measurable way.
– Incessantly we strive to kaizen activities.
– Thinking “outside the box.
– Always be aware of protecting the safety and health.
13. Get decisions slowly by consensus, whereas more options, implement rapidly the activities
The following are the parameters of the decision:
– Find what is really going (go-and-see) to test
– Determine the cause
– Consider a range of alternatives, consider all options
– Discuss with the team and if necessary by the Property
– Building consensus on the resolution (“Nemawashi”); reach agreement
– Use the A3 to communicate efficiently
– Implement decisions quickly.
14. Becoming a learning organization through reflection (hansei) and continuous improvement (kaizen)
Stabilize the first trial, and then pursue continuous improvement (kaizen).
The goal is to develop a process to become a learning organization involves and criticizes every aspect of what we do, both positive and negative results they reach.
Through the ‘Hansei “will include reflections, lessons learned, enabling them to transform information into action that can correct errors
below some activities that we have to apply every day to become a Lean company, performing
– Standardize best practices through the “lessons in point only”
– Please use the PDCA – Plan, Do, Check, Act
– Please use the 5 Why
– Create plans for short, medium and long term involving the company as a whole
– Clarify always problems and immediately apply the fundamental solutions
– Standardize processes
– Better than 50% today 90% tomorrow
Passing through the 14 points above described is applied with perseverance, we can make the long journey of the LEAN philosophy.