HOW TO REDUCE WASTE
4 febbraio 2011 § Lascia un commento
In our working days we do not often realize how that can be wasted every day, regularly go to create, in some studies claim that companies that can be called “traditional” non-value activities in production area accounts for 60% of the assets , we are talking basically of activities that can be processed quickly, 35% need more time to improve and then we can see that only 5% of the assets generate value.
If we enter into the business office, we find that only 1% generates values while 49% refers to activities that do not generate value, but that can be implemented quickly, while the other 50% refers to activities DO NOT VALUE ADDED, but can be eliminated in the longer term.
Based on the foregoing, we are going to develop a set of points that will help us to address the war on waste in a winning, highlighting everything that does not create value, turning it into VALUE
1. Base your management decisions for the long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term financial goals
The most common goal is always to make big money in the shortest possible time, companies that are created to generate money, thus creating the opportunity to invest and grow, while maintaining or even better, increasing its position
First, each society must understand the history and purpose, goals that are set from time to time, but the important thing for any company is to generate value for our customers, society and the economy itself , which is why all our efforts must be focused to achieve those values.
2. Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface
Each worker process must be redesigned to eliminate waste (muda) through the process of continuous improvement – Kaizen.
Only through a proper redesign of Kaizen and processes we can develop high added value by eliminating all those activities that produce value and inactive.
We must therefore focus on creating a connection of the following streams:
Flow of supplies
A rapid and simple connection allows us to have so clear a stream and seen by all, both from internal personnel from outside personnel.
Ideally, all actors in our company should be able to understand a simple glance, where it moves the material to its destination, the activities of persons and, more importantly their goals.
If we want to achieve this we must begin with the elimination of the 7 leading waste, or as they are called in Japan, MUDA, listed below:
a. Producing more than necessary from the subsequent process,
a. Eliminate downtime of machines and operators
a. Continue to move the material without assigning a clear destination
a. Perform unnecessary work, or unsolicited; rework due to errors or omissions
5. Excess Inventory
a. Hold the stock with very high values, and have a low number of rotation in relation to cost of sales
6. Unnecessary movements
a. Click to play by the staff, production and administrative movements and generate unnecessary waste of time and increased fatigue
a. Create a defective product
Each of MUDA above can have a decisive bearing on the final result of a company, depending on the type of activity examined each part must be assigned a value that will indicate the priorities for action.
IMPROVEMENT IS ONLY THROUGH A REDUCTION OF WASTE
3. PULL use the system to reduce overproduction
Through the PULL system, you can avoid unnecessary overproduction minimizing the WIP (work processes) and the warehouse inventory replenishment system with a common
In a strict management pull, input products in production is not made in anticipation of orders, production is regulated by the downstream production process. In a system of pull the materials are pulled into the factory by the orders in the portfolio, and this is possible because these orders cover the crossing time of production and supply. In contrast, in a push system is necessary to anticipate the entry of materials at the factory and work orders because the crossing time is longer than the horizon of the backlog. Pull systems “pure” types are very rare in the manufacturing and production prevail in situations where the order book is supplemented by sales forecasts, at least at the start (push-pull).
A pull system is governed entirely by orders and therefore does not seem to require forecasts. This is actually true only for the products, however, have to plan facilities and manpower resources, that is, defining the capacity of a process. Also they must be procured with sufficient time to make them available at the time of use.
the objective is to daily demand, order today delivered tomorrow.
4. Balancing the workload
Heijunka (平 准 化) is the Japanese term for the level of production. It ‘s a technique to prevent the waste of walls and is of vital importance in lean companies. The general idea is to produce goods in the processes upstream at a steady pace, allowing the same rate constant and predictable even at the downstream operations. By keeping a small inventory of finished product at the end of the production process, the application can be leveled for the entire production and also to the suppliers, thus making more efficient use of resources across the value stream while meeting customer requirements
Ideally, the production can be leveled easily if demand is constant, but in the real world this question is variable, and two approaches are adopted to deal with: the level of production through flexible production and level of demand.
Level of production
Level of production may be due to the volume leveling for leveling or type of product or product mix.
Suppose we have a demand of between 80 and 120 pieces. It might seem sensible
accurately produce on demand. This approach, however, says its product according to the average of long-term demand and to keep an inventory proportional to the variability in demand, stability of the production process and the frequency of deliveries. In our example, if the process is 100% reliable and we have one delivery per week, then the production would be 100 pieces with a minimum standard of 20 parts inventory at the beginning of the week and 120 pieces at the time of delivery. The advantage of carrying this inventory is that manages to level the entire production output and reduce WIP inventories.
By product type (mix):
Most productions have a mix of products and therefore have to determine the sequence of production. The lean approach is to reduce the setup time of production (SMED method) so that they can be produced (and are not prohibitive in terms of cost) to smaller and smaller batches of each product, almost nullifying the significance of productive time and costs lost. This means that demand for parts can be leveled for the upstream sub-processes and thus the total lead time and inventories are reduced along the value stream. To simplify the leveling of products with varying levels of demand is often used so-called Heijunka box (box Heijunka) board for a visual check, which you can see in the introductory part. In a typical box Heijunka each horizontal row represents a product, while each vertical column represents the same
intervals of time in which to withdraw the card kanban. The kanban card in the compartments
represents a pitch of production for a particular product type (pitch is the takt time
multiplied by the amount of product that is put into a package). Used as
illustration, the box Heijunka persistently demand in short increments of time (rather than release the program to shift, day or week …) and level the demand for the product mix (eg, ensuring that the products D and E are produced with a constant rate and inlotti children).
With regard to the level of production by product type, we assume that the public offer 4 models of product A, B, C and D which is the weekly requirement of 50 for A, 30 B, 20 for C and D. A mass producer (Traditional), looking for economies of scale and want to minimize the effect of setup times between products, you probably would have produced weekly with the sequence 10A-10A-10A-10A-10A-10B-10B-10B -10C-10C-10D-10D.
A lean manufacturer, in addition to the benefits described above the effect of sending large batches and
infrequent orders to upstream suppliers, would undertake to produce the repeated sequence 10A-10A-10B-10C-10D-10A-10A-10B-10C-10D-10A-10B, improving your system by reducing the time setup. And this sequence would be periodically adjusted according to changes in orders (in question) of the customer.
Level of demand
Level of demand is the deliberate influence of the application or processes that define the purpose of obtaining a more predictable pattern of customer demand. Part of this influence comes through the manipulation of the product, partly by influencing the process of ordering and revealing part of the variability induced by the amplification of demand or purchase patterns. It does not include activities designed to influence to get rid of existing stocks. Usually the level of demand is caused by artifacts in the process of selling and order and not from an analysis of the past. This means that the timing of the entire supply chain must be reduced:
where the actual construction time-delivery may have the same order of magnitude of the expectations of the customer, then the planning effort could be successful. In this case a reliable production provides low levels of stocks (or no stock) and it will not interfere with customer satisfaction. Also disappearing are the incentives to sell what was produced and stored …
Otherwise, if the construction-delivery is longer than the time that the customer is ready to
wait, you run the risk of wrong predictions and end up with unacceptable levels of stocks …
If the request follows a predictable pattern (flat or even seasonal), you can arrange to have shipments that follow this same or similar pattern, optimizing inventory and manufacturing processes.
Stability is one of the pillars of the system. Without stability and without defined and standardized procedures may not be able to have a working system. And Heijunka is the tool to use to reach it. So use it with head and aim to reach a clear idea.
5. Building a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get the right quality immediately
Quality takes precedence (Jidoka). Any employee of a company called LEAN (Lean) has the authority to stop the process to signal a quality issue.
The term Toyota Jido “is applied to a machine with a built-in device for making judgments, whereas the normal Japanese term” Jido (automation) is simply applied to a machine that moves on its own. Jidoka refers to “automation with a human touch,” as opposed to a machine that simply moves under the control and supervision of an operator.
Since the machine stops when a problem arose, no harm, no defective product was produced. This means that a single operator could be put in charge of several machines, leading to a huge improvement in productivity.
The key issue is getting quality required by our customers with the first production without where to rework
– Use modern methods of quality assurance
– Building the ability to detect the problems (and stop the process)
– The “Jidoka” is a system of visual identification by machines when not produced the required quality
Zero Quality Control – Quality must be in the product and process
Everyone is responsible to monitor the critical aspects of quality before a trial has begun;
Everyone is responsible to check their work after a task or operation has been completed, and if the first two inspections do not ensure a sufficiently high level of quality or safety, we use the source control.
6. Activities and standardized processes are the basis for continuous improvement and employee empowerment
The more I find myself visiting companies and more I realize how profoundly lacking most of them are in the field of standards and documented procedures, not to mention the labor standard. As one of the cornerstones of the Toyota Production System, labor standards (including standardized work) is very different from the standard or standards of work. Standard work is a very demanding. It is typically represented on a spreadsheet that shows the standard layout, material flow, people and inventory control points and the quality and safety, and the form of standard combinations containing the times and activities for a person to complete a cycle of work at hand, on foot, and waiting times.
The definition of standard work is “the most effective mix of human, material and equipment. Work is the standard method, and then you have the four M to production (labor, materials, machines, methods). The standard of work is “the most effective” until the standard is improved. This is done through the continuous improvement process kaizen.
There are three elements of labor standards for a process in phases. They are: 1) takt time, 2) sequence of work and 3) standard work in progress. For a process that repeats itself or is too variable may not be possible to establish standards of work under these conditions (takt time is not significant, sequence of work varies, Standard WIP varies). In this case, it is necessary to eliminate the variability and standardize the process and create a flow-rate, or apply other options, it always through Kaizen.
Ultimately, the work you do is the same, and when we understand this Zen Deep Lean everything else you do will be much easier.
The two requirements for working in a true Lean Enterprise are: 1) follow the work standards, and 2) find a better way. There must be something more than that and you are right, for most of us that the lack of standard work is not the point of departure. First we must establish standards, then we need to train people to these standards and then we need to review and verify that these standards are met.
employee empowerment = radical decentralization
7. Use visual control so that problems can not be hidden
No problem is hidden, that’s the reason why you must create a standard of measurement in order to keep the situation under control
To better achieve the goal, it will be important to use the 5S Program – steps that are used to make all work spaces efficient and productive, help people to work in a safe environment, reduce the time needed to search for tools and improve the working environment.
Eliminate unnecessary items
Put in order: a place for everything everything in its place
Clean: Keep the area clean
Standardize: Create rules and standard operating procedures
Support: maintain the system and continue to improve
Then applying a management system Visual’re going to promote the development of a business safer, more efficient and less expensive processes. The objective of using visual management is to create “status at a glance.” This means that an operating environment in which the conditions of normal vs abnormal operation can be detected easily and quickly.
Visual management tools are used to:
• Provide status at a glance, allowing quick and easy detection of abnormal operating conditions
• Provides visual tools for helping employees to complete tasks more quickly and in a more standardized approach
Visual Management creates a standardized environment of work, giving instructions, directions, reminders, etc., on how the work should be done. There are endless possibilities for the application of visual management.
The key is to find creative ways to apply visual management to reduce waste of assets, connections and flows
8. Use technologies are tested and reliable, to serve your people and your processes
The technology is driven by production, is not driven by production, it is necessary that the technology being used to support people (not to replace them)
Before investing in new technologies will be important to ask: “What is my purpose?”
Lean the basic philosophy that says you have to use machines ‘old’ and slow but able to comply with the “takt” production, and dedicated to the production process rather than large complex machines that enslave more lines.
In reality, the factors that define the kind of type to be applied are different, we can attach to the lean philosophy, and the same kaizen teaches is always proceed in small steps, 50% better now that 90% tomorrow.
Always remember to measure the present values, check the risultai that you can get the new investment, the expected workload at first, and then the payback time
9. Grow leaders who understand and live the philosophy, and teach others
Without constant attention, the principles fade. The principles should be grounded, to have to change the way you think. Employees must be educated and trained: they must maintain a network of learning.
“Live the philosophy and teach it to others”
In a Lean approach is important for leaders to grow from within, the Leader does not just do business and have people skills, but should be a role model one who understands the work in great detail and remember to always be a good teacher
A leader LEAN guide:
– Setting an example
– Entering into the complicated details
– Asking questions
– Teaching and training
– Building systems and processes robust and sensitive sharing responsibility
10. Develop exceptional people and team to follow the philosophy of
In order to develop a process, a key element is to create a strong and stable culture in which values and beliefs are widely shared by everyone from top management last arrived in the company.
At the same time a strong shared culture allows us to build team working in collaboration across company, working towards shared objectives through projects constructed in full cooperation.
This collaboration brings us to a miglioramentodella quality and productivity, accelerating the process of problem solving and organizational learning.
11. Respect your network of partners and suppliers, through healthy competition and helping to improve
Toyota treats suppliers much like their employees, forcing them to do better and find better solutions. Toyota provides cross-functional teams to suppliers so that together they can discover and resolve issues with the goal of becoming even more performance
In fact suppliers are business partners participating in the challenge of helping to grow and develop.
It is thus to address the concept of comakership, is that a strategy for suppliers. First it comes to selecting and thinning in order to reduce their number, through carefully selected criteria.
In a second step it tries to turn suppliers into partners with the purchasing strategies which work in co-design, reducing costs since the study of the product
If the customer tries to create value for the supplier and the supplier seeks to create value for customers is an open collaboration, long-term contracts are signed to strengthen relations. The common objectives are quality, service, innovation, aimed at sharing the cost and competitive advantage.
Working together can cover the product, service, process, in order to achieve an improvement due to synergies of the link. This initiative can be born a second initiative, the enterprise network. The organizational changes may improve mutual and reciprocal: the operational areas, reports logistics, quality and reliability, the development of new products, support systems (planning), contractual relations, marketing, purchasing, evaluation of suppliers.
12. Go see for yourself to fully understand the situational (genchi gembutsu)
From a Toyota managers are expected to “go-and-see” operations in its area. Without experiencing the situation firsthand, managers will have an understanding of how we can improve. Moreover, the managers use the following management principles:
– Always keep in mind the ultimate goal.
– Clearly assign tasks to yourself and others.
– Think and talk at the level of verification, the data are the basis for improvement.
– Taking full advantage of the wisdom and experience of all, to meet and discuss the collected
– Share information with others in a timely fashion.
– Implement relations, inform and consult in a timely manner all the Team
– Analyze and understand the weaknesses in your skills in a measurable way.
– Incessantly we strive to kaizen activities.
– Thinking “outside the box.
– Always be aware of protecting the safety and health.
13. Get decisions slowly by consensus, whereas more options, implement rapidly the activities
The following are the parameters of the decision:
– Find what is really going (go-and-see) to test
– Determine the cause
– Consider a range of alternatives, consider all options
– Discuss with the team and if necessary by the Property
– Building consensus on the resolution (“Nemawashi”); reach agreement
– Use the A3 to communicate efficiently
– Implement decisions quickly.
14. Becoming a learning organization through reflection (hansei) and continuous improvement (kaizen)
Stabilize the first trial, and then pursue continuous improvement (kaizen).
The goal is to develop a process to become a learning organization involves and criticizes every aspect of what we do, both positive and negative results they reach.
Through the ‘Hansei “will include reflections, lessons learned, enabling them to transform information into action that can correct errors
below some activities that we have to apply every day to become a Lean company, performing
– Standardize best practices through the “lessons in point only”
– Please use the PDCA – Plan, Do, Check, Act
– Please use the 5 Why
– Create plans for short, medium and long term involving the company as a whole
– Clarify always problems and immediately apply the fundamental solutions
– Standardize processes
– Better than 50% today 90% tomorrow
Passing through the 14 points above described is applied with perseverance, we can make the long journey of the LEAN philosophy.